POLJOT (Полет )
    1930 1936

No emblem, only designation:
1 ИН ГОС ЧАС ЗАВОД, МОСКВА СССР = First State Watch Factory Moscow USSR
 

  1936 1938

1 = First
Г Ч = State Watch
З = Factory
МОСКВА = Moscow
СССР =Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

 

  1938 1940

НКМ = Public commissariat for engineering
1
= First
Г Ч = State Watch
З = Factory
МОСКВА = Moscow

 
 

  1940

НКОМ =
Public commissariat for general engineering
1
= First
Г Ч = State Watch
З = Factory
МОСКВА = Moscow

 

  1945-1963

1 = First
М Ч = Moscow Watch
З = Factory

 

  1МЧЗ = First Moscow Watch Factory
  1963-1975

1 = First
М Ч = Moscow Watch
З = Factory

1964-
Poljot
= Flight

 

  1975-

Poljot Logo


 

 

 
    SLAWA (СЛАВА)
 
  1936-1937

НКТП = Public commissariat for heavy industry
2ЧАСЗ-Д
= 2. Watch Factory

МОСКВА = Moscow

 

  1938-1939

НКМ = Public commissariat for engineering
2ЧАСЗ-Д
= 2. Watch Factory

МОСКВА = Moscow

 

  1940-1941

НКОМ = Public commissariat for general engineering
ЧАСЗ-Д
= 2. Watch Factory

МОСКВА = Moscow

 

  1942-1946

5 З = 5. Watch Factory
Factory 53 was a temporary watch factory ( branch) of the 2nd Moscow watch factory behind the Urals


 

  1945-1958

Ч 2 З
= 2. Watch Factory

 

 

  1958-

Slava
= Fame

 

 

 
    WOSTOK (ВОСТОК)
  1942 -1964

Ч = Chistopol
Ч З = Watch Factory

  1964 -

ВОСТОК = East


 

 

 
    RAKETA (РАКЕТА)

 

  From 1949

П Ч З = Petrodworez Watch Factory

 

  From 1962 

РАКЕТА = Rocket


 

 

 
    CHAIKA (ЧАЙКА)
    1937 -1949

producing TTK-2 watch jewels and technical stones .

  1950 -1962

У = Uglich

Ч З = Watch Factory

  From 1962 

Chaika = seagull

 


 

 

 
    ZARJA (ЗАРЯ)
 
    1935 -1940

producing ZIF watches.

 

  1940 -1962

П Ч З = Penza Watch Factory

  From 1963

Zarja = Dawn


 

 

 
    LUCH (ЛУЧ)
  1956-___

М Ч З = Minsk Watch Factory

 

  19__-

Luch = Beam


 

 

 
    MOLNIJA (МОЛНИЯ)
  1942 -1964

Ч Ч З = Chelyabinsk Watch Factory 

 

 

 

  1964-

Molnija = Lightning


 

 

 
    ZIM (ЗИМ)
 
  From 19__? 

ЗИМ = Watch Factory Maslenikov

Zavod Imeni Maslennikova (ZIM)


 

 

 
    Slatoustowski
Златоустовский часовой завод

 

  From 1941

З Ч З = Zlatoust Watch Factory

 

  Zlatoust Stopwatches

 

1st State Precision Jewel Cutting Factory TTK-1

The history goes back to 1721 when at this location diamond were turned into gem stones and precious rock, stone and crystal cutting for artwork  was produced. Examples can still be found at the Hermitage and Summer Palace of Petrodverts giving it the name of Versailles of Russia. Based on this expertise in 1930 the 1st State Precision Jewel Cutting Factory, or abbreviant TTK-1 in Cyrillic, was here in Petrodverts established. Until the WWII all jewels for timepieces produced in the Soviet Union where produced at TTK-1. The factory was destroyed during the war, but re-build and from 1949 it took-up the manufacturing of the jewels again.

In addition the  factory started to produce watches with movements coming from the 1st and 2nd Moscow Watch Factories. Unlike the other watch factories, the watches were not made by production lines and conveyer belts (which expertise was bought from and setup by LIP of France in Pensa for the first time) but by small groups of watchmakers in parallel. This lasted from 1949-1954. In 1954 the name changed to Petrovoredts Watch Factory and autonomous watch and clock manufacturing took place. In 1962 the name changed again into Raketa.

Text by Tammo


 

Designation of origin

'SU' is a generic marking applied to many Soviet-built movements from somewhere around the late sixties until the end of the USSR, after which it was replaced by 'RUS' for Russia and 'BY' for Belarus. Surplus stocks of 'SU' marked movements continued to be used well into the 1990s.

 


 

State Mark of Quality

More often than not, on items of domestic production or on their packing, we find this pentagon, in which above stylized the letter <K> appears an inscription <CCCP>. The letter <K> is sideways, and creates simultaneously an image of balance. The bottom part is represented in the form of dividers, and the top is a balanced bowl. It symbolically expresses an idea "from commensuramility - to an establishment of conformity", that is one of main problems of standardization: an establishment of optimum conformity between requests of the consumer and parameters of quality. The emblem of a State mark of Quality, a mark certifying a highest level of quality, and conformity to production to the best world standards, is this.

Why there was a necessity for such mark? What entitles a product to its application? What gives production and consumption of production with is familiar qualities? The answers to these questions are in indissoluble connection with the tendency of development of soviet socialist economy at the present stage.

"In present conditions if to mean effect for all national economy, it is better - Almost always means and more", - The comrade L. Brezhnev on XXIV congress KPSU spoke.

In a 1965 in connection with transition of an industry to new system of planning and provision of economic incentives, the decision on introduction in our country of state certification of quality of industrial items was accepted.

The concept "the quality of production" has very wide sense. It indicates conformity of an item to the standards, drawings or specifications and high efficiency in operation (consumption), characterized by reliability, profitability, aesthetic level. All listed attributes of quality of production in many cases manage to be characterized by quantitative parameters reflecting the various parties of consumption cost of production.

In application, for example, to electric motors it is technical parameters: capacity, efficiency and so on: parameters of reliability and durability - Service life, probability of non-failure for service life and so on; parameters of a degree of unification and standardization - Factors applicability standardized and unified dimensions of compound details.

Besides the listed parameters, to evaluate quality, the result of examination of an aesthetic level of items - Appearance, convenience of work with them and so on are considered. To achieve such examination in USSR, one attends an All-Union research institute of an industrial art.

Certainly, in each specific case, the parameters of quality are established with allowance for specifities of an item. Use of quantitative parameters allows one to compare qualities of the given item with what that by other, similar as required item, which on the given interval of time symbolizes a maximum world degree of quality. The comparison can be conducted on the basis of comparison of the best domestic and foreign samples, by results of comparative tests, by valuation of a conjuncture in the external market. Such work also was executed by a State commission. It has established, that the quality of electric motors of a series A-2 met maximum achievement in the given area of engineering.

In Soviet Union since a 1972 all production under the authorized nomenclature is exposed to certification for three categories: by maximum, first and second, To a maximum category applies production appropriate on the technological parameters to maximum achievement of a domestic and foreign science and engineering; this production the State mark of quality is given. To the first category applies production appropriate to the standards (or specifications), which are up-to-date. Production certificated for the second category, is subject to modernization or removal from production.

Scanned and translated from magazine "Scientific and Life" 7'1972.
Translation Sergei Frolov

 

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